This is a collection of technical papers published by MAN Energy Solutions, Copenhagen/Holeby, Denmark, covering both MAN B&W two-stroke and MAN four-stroke diesel engines.

Our technical papers provide information on new engine developments and trends, service experience, important aspects of engine management and maintenance, and emissions requirements compliance and development, etc. 

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  • Dec 01, 2020

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    MAN B&W two-stroke engine operating on ammonia
    Ammonia as a marine fuel is put into perspective as this paper presents our current knowledge about ammonia as a potential long-term fuel for two-stroke marine engines. We address the challenges encountered by the maritime market, which are best described as a paradigm shift to ensure compliance with global decarbonisation goals. To develop an engine for a new fuel such as ammonia calls for partnerships, cooperation and an understanding of the market interests. MAN Energy Solutions works diligently towards designing the MAN B&W engine for operation on ammonia and offering retrofit conversions of existing two-stroke engines to ammonia. Decarbonisation constitutes one of the largest transitions encountered, and the short deadline to succeed requires a united and committed approach from the entire supply chain from well to wake.
    PDF, 1.41 MB
  • Jun 24, 2020

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    Adverse Weather Condition functionality and minimum propulsion power
    The tightening requirements of the Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) means that the demand for energy efficiency of merchant vessels is continuously increasing. With the EEDI leading to reductions of the power on board, concerns about a possible lack of propulsion power during encounters of adverse weather have been expressed. This paper gives a detailed description of the challenge of propulsion in harsh weather, and introduces the Adverse Weather Conditions (AWC) functionality. The AWC functionality extends the load diagram of the engine as long as required in an emergency. This increases the heavy running capability of the engine significantly and increases the minimum forward speed of the vessel in harsh weather, without requiring an increase of the engine power installed.
    PDF, 3.94 MB
  • Jun 08, 2020

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    For the increasingly popular twin propulsion design, MAN Energy Solutions has introduced synchrophasing which is a new, and highly effective tool introduced to reduce vibrations of both vessel and engine structure. A comprehensive test period covering over 15 vessels shows a vibration reduction in the range of 50-70%.
    PDF, 3.71 MB
  • Apr 29, 2020

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    LNGC-optimised designs of ME-GI engines and fuel gas supply systems
    The new ME-GI platform sets the new industrial standard for two-stroke propulsion engines in liquefied natural gas carriers (LNGC) and other aspects of commercial shipping. The advantages of combining the ME-GI engine with different optimized fuel gas supply configurations, as described in this paper, are highly efficient and cost-competitive propulsion solutions.”
    PDF, 7.75 MB
  • Dec 16, 2019

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    Propulsion trends in container vessels
    Container vessels carry vast amounts of consumables and components around the globe in liner traffic operated by some of the most renowned ship-owners. Container vessels are a well-known representative for the maritime industry, and the interest in these is vast just as the competition within the segment is fierce.
    PDF, 1.24 MB
  • Oct 16, 2019

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    Propulsion trends in bulk carriers
    This paper focuses on bulk carrier sizes above 5,000 dwt. Based on an analysis of bulk carriers built/ordered over the last ten years the latest vessel particulars used for modern bulk carriers are established. The propulsion power demanded is established and possible main engines listed for a range of typical sizes, using the latest MAN B&W two-stroke engine programme as the basis. Special attention is given to how to attain compliance with EEDI Phase 2 and 3, either by traditional fuels or alternative fuels.
    PDF, 3.56 MB
  • Sep 10, 2019

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    Batteries on board ocean-going vessels
    The International Maritime Organization has adopted a strategy to reduce the emission of greenhouse gasses from global shipping by at least 50% by 2050 compared to 2008. Current technology must be combined in new ways, new inventions, and alternative fuels must be brought to the global scene to reach this goal. In the light of these needs, this paper will focus on one of the potential ways to reduce emissions, namely the application of batteries on large ocean-going vessels. The potential for battery-electric propulsion is evaluated, along with the benefits of integrating batteries into the electric grid on board.
    PDF, 7.24 MB
  • Aug 22, 2019

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    0.50% S fuel operation 2020
    This paper provides information and guidance on 0.50% S fuel operation and how to prepare for the change from operation on high-sulphur fuel to 0.50% S fuel. Attention is drawn to specific fuel properties that should be in focus and how 0.50% S fuels affect the equipment on board. Expectations for the new types of fuels are given, and information on biofuels, fuel testing, and fuels that are not fit for purpose is also included.
    PDF, 15.57 MB
  • Sep 09, 2019

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    Service experience
    This paper describes in detail the service experience of ME-GI, ME-GIE and ME LGIM engines. Furthermore, the latest experience from our large bore engines is described. Technologies to meet Tier III requirements, and our new TCEV/ FBIV designs are also touched upon.
    PDF, 4.57 MB
  • Mar 21, 2019

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    Efficiency of MAN B&W two-stroke engines
    In the design process, typically conducted by the contractor for land-based applications or the shipyard for marine installations, it is relevant to reduce the daily fuel oil consumption and, consequently, the CO2 footprint from carbon containing fuels. The paper covers power consumption of electric auxiliary equipment, for example pumps, fans, etc., serving the MAN B&W engines.
    PDF, 1.17 MB
  • Jan 18, 2019

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    Propulsion of 46,000-50,000 dwt MR tankers
    This paper provides guidance and examples on how to ensure compliance with EEDI phase 2 and 3 for MR tankers through three case studies. Application of the latest engine technology, such as EcoEGR in combination with a shaft generator, will reduce the EEDI significantly. Combined with an optimised aft ship with a Kappel propeller and a rudder bulb, this will ensure EEDI compliance for traditional fuels. In addition, the paper considers alternative fuels such as LPG and LNG as such fuels reduce the EEDI significantly and allow for a higher service speed if desired.
    PDF, 2.16 MB
  • Jan 18, 2019

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    Propulsion of 2,200 - 3,000 teu container vessels
    The current container feeder fleet is ageing, and new fleet renewal programmes are expected within the near future. This paper will outline the advantages of applying the latest engine technology included in the Mark 10 engine design to the feeder segment, along with other fuel saving technologies as e.g. EcoEGR. This will ensure significant SFOC savings, not only of benefit to the environment, but also to the owners.
    PDF, 985.85 KB
  • Jan 08, 2019

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    11,000 teu container vessel
    The 11,000-teu container vessel has been a popular vessel type plying the Asia-Europe trade routes. This size of vessel has been an excellent choice that increases the flexibility in fleet deployment, with subsequent economic benefits. This paper considers an ME-GI Mk. 2 gas-fuelled container vessel and the potential different fuel gas supply system arrangements available. A method to calculate the gas tank size is proposed and different fuel gas system arrangements are compared. In conclusion, proposals are made on how to further increase the endurance and reduce the fuel consumption by applying the latest propulsion technologies, such as a combination of ME-GI and PTO, thus achieving the greatest possible energy efficiency.
    PDF, 943.05 KB
  • Dec 06, 2018

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    Propulsion of 14,000 teu “New Panamax” container vessel
    In anticipation of the completion of the new Panama Canal, the “New Panamax” type of container vessels has been a popular category since the early 2010s. New Panamax vessels offer easy access to the large market of North America as well as good flexibility, as the vessels offer adequate economy of scale to trade on many other routes. This paper considers the propulsion plants available for such vessels, and show the significant savings that can be attained through the application of the latest propulsion technology, including EcoEGR.
    PDF, 1.03 MB
  • Sep 17, 2013

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    Basic Principles of Ship Propulsion
    This paper provides the reader with an understanding of how the hull and propeller affect the engine running conditions and vice versa. The paper offers insight into how to design the most efficient propulsion plant, and explains how this task can be supported by applying the new engine selection spiral. This revised edition also includes a new section on the environmental regulations implemented over the past years. The effects of these regulations are reflected in three examples on the application of the engine selection spiral.
    PDF, 6.64 MB
  • Sep 07, 2016

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    The Dynamic Limiter Function - A new engine control technology for faster ship acceleration
    The dynamic limiter function (DLF) is a new engine control system functionality that has been developed to improve engine and ship acceleration. This paper describes some principles of ship acceleration and why MAN Energy Solutions has chosen to develop DLF and how DLF works.
    PDF, 3.07 MB
  • Oct 23, 2018

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    MAN BW ME-GI - container vessels
    As a result of MAN Energy Solutions’ innovation, more possibilities for burning greener fuels now exist. Today, customers can choose between different engine platforms that have been developed to ensure efficient and green fuel-combustion by MAN B&W dual-fuel, two-stroke engines. The ME-GI dual-fuel engines described in this paper have been based on an optimised engine design platform, which has resulted in a lighter and a more powerful engine.
    PDF, 5.83 MB
  • Oct 08, 2018

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    B&W ME-LGIP dual-fuel engines
    The dual fuel capability of our two-stroke engines has been extended to include LPG as fuel. The ME-LGIP engine was successfully tested on the research engine in Copenhagen in June 2018, and it has already been ordered for propulsion of LPGCs. The paper describes the technology of the engine, comprising injection, low-flashpoint fuel supply system, and gas valve train. The feasibility of the ME-LGIP engine for other ship types and as a retrofit on existing LPGCs is also touched on.
    PDF, 1.96 MB
  • Mar 17, 2017

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    Efficiency Improvements to Main Engine Auxiliary Systems
    In the design process of main engine auxiliary systems conducted by the shipyard, options that could improve efficiency and reduce daily fuel oil consumption and consequently CO2 emission are available. The options cover power efficiency improvements of electric auxiliary equipment, for example pumps, fans, etc., serving the main engine, but also efficiency improvements related directly to the main engine specific fuel oil consumption.
    PDF, 4.30 MB
  • Jul 13, 2016

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    Cost and Benefits of Alternative Fuels for an LR1 Product Tanker
    Key results from a DNV GL and MAN Energy Solutions joint study The sulphur emission control areas (SECAs) in place in North-America and Northern Europe, in combination with the upcoming global 0.5% limit on sulphur in 2020 (or 2025) and similar EU limits in 2020, call for alternative fuels as a means for compliance. Several alternative fuels are available and, at the same time, new fuel oil products with very low sulphur content have been introduced.
    PDF, 2.67 MB
  • Jun 15, 2017

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    Cost-Optimised Designs of ME-GI Fuel Gas Supply Systems
    The environmentally friendly GI concept is class approved and ME-GI engines are already powering numerous vessels at sea. With 200 engines ordered, the ME-GI engine sets the new industrial standard for two-stroke propulsion engines in liquefied natural gas (LNG) carriers, liquified petroleum gas (LPG) carriers and container vessels.
    PDF, 4.00 MB
  • Jun 15, 2017

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    LVOC Combusting ME-GIE Engine
    The Mitsui-MAN B&W 7G50ME-C9.5-GIE engine originally designed for combustion of ethane gas also runs on 100% liquefied natural gas (LNG) but equally important it also combusts a mixture of LNG and volatile organic compounds (VOC) with limited change in gas mode efficiency. It has been established that the mixture can contain as much as 50% VOC by mass.
    PDF, 331.82 KB
  • Sep 07, 2016

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    Service Experience MAN B&W Two-stroke Diesel Engines
    A high number of G-type and S-type engines of the latest generation have entered service successfully. These engines are generally characterised by Tier II compliance, heavily derated layouts and performance with main focus on part and low-load fuel optimisation. Very close to 100% of these engines are of the electronically controlled ME-C and ME-B types.
    PDF, 2.64 MB
  • Mar 05, 2015

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    Guidelines for Operation on Fuels with less than 0.1% Sulphur
    This paper is a guideline for owners, operators and crews on how to prepare for the changes in fuel characteristics and how to operate in compliance with the new sulphur limits in sulphur emission control areas (SECA) as of 1 January 2015. The SECAs currently included are the Baltic Sea, The North Sea, the English Channel and waters within 200 nautical miles from the coast of USA, the coastal waters around Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands (the US Caribbean ECA) and Canada.
    PDF, 1.32 MB
  • Mar 05, 2015

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    Filtration Handbook Filtration and Flushing Strategy
    The exacting tolerances in today’s hydraulic systems require tight control of the system contamination. Experience has shown that impurities found in the system originate from the installation and from new oil. If not removed, particles will cause damage to valves, pumps and bearings and, eventually, lead to malfunction of the system and increased wear on the hydraulic components.
    PDF, 1.24 MB
  • Jan 20, 2016

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    ME-GI Gas-ready Ship
    Given the volatile nature of today’s fuel prices combined with the introduction of a more stringent emission regulation in emission control areas, it has never been more difficult to mitigate the economic risk associated with operating a vessel.
    PDF, 601.54 KB
  • May 26, 2016

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    At the Forefront of Green Engine Technology
    Today the choice of engine technology is most often based on estimated fuel cost, the availability of the fuel and the implementation of still more strict SOX and NOx emission regulations worldwide.
    PDF, 2.65 MB
  • Sep 01, 2012

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    Propulsion of VLCC
    This paper evaluates the options when selecting an engine for a VLCC (very large crude carrier) on the basis of vessel speed, propeller diameter and CO2 emissions. The influence of the various parameters is illustarted by two case studies.
    PDF, 4.16 MB
  • Jun 18, 2014

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    G-Type Engine Revolutionary Ultra-Long-Stroke
    The first G-type engine, designated G80ME-C, has a design that follows the principles of the large bore Mk 9 engine series that MAN Energy Solutions introduced in 2006. The G-type is designed with a longer stroke to reduce engine speed, thereby paving the way for ship designs with unprecedented high efficiency.
    PDF, 484.29 KB
  • Mar 05, 2015

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    Shaft Generators for Low Speed Main Engines
    The purpose with this paper is to provide detailed information about different categories of shaft generators driven by a MAN B&W low speed marine engine used for ship propulsion. The paper describes different types of marine shaft generators and their configurations, with the physical connecting interfaces to the main engine or to the intermediate propeller shaft. It will provide a description of relevant aspects and can be used for reference.
    PDF, 2.02 MB
  • Jun 11, 2014

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    The MAN B&W Dual Fuel Engines – Starting a New Era in Shipping
    The need for seaborne transportation will increase significantly in the years to come. At the same time, the heavy fuel oil (HFO) price is increasing, stricter emission requirements are coming into force and the public is becoming more concerned about the environmental footprint of shipping. As a result, the industry is investigating in alternative fuels for shipping. Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is an attractive option and is expected to be cheaper than fuel oil in the future.
    PDF, 793.24 KB
  • Sep 01, 2012

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    Costs and Benefits of LNG
    The use of liquefied natural gas (LNG) as ship fuel has recently gained more attention in Europe, but also in Asia and the USA. There are three visible drivers which, taken together, make LNG as ship fuel one of the most promising new technologies for shipping.
    PDF, 1.40 MB
  • Oct 24, 2010

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    Propulsion Trends in LNG Carriers
    Natural gas is a “clean” fuel compared to diesel and heavy fuel oil and, together with an increasing environmental responsibility, there is a rising demand for natural gas worldwide. Where it is not possible to transport natural gas by means of pipelines, the LNG (Liquid Natural Gas) carriers have to take over the transportation because natural gas in liquid form at atmospheric pressure only takes up 1/600 of the natural gas volume.
    PDF, 617.94 KB
  • Feb 09, 2012

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    Blended Edge Main Bearings
    The blended edge (BE) design was introduced on thin shell white metal main bearings to better cope with crankshaft inclinations and thereby increase the resistance towards edge fatigue failures. The blended edge design is the corresponding item to the thick shell flex-edge design for MC engines.
    PDF, 1.48 MB
  • Apr 22, 2014

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    G60ME-C9 Vibration Performance
    MAN Diesel & Turbo has successfully completed structural vibration measurements on the first Green Dolphin 64,000 dwt bulk carrier propelled by the new »green« G-type ultra-long stroke 5G60ME-C9 main engine.
    PDF, 536.42 KB
  • Mar 03, 2014

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    Propulsion of 200,000-210,000 dwt Large Capesize Bulk Carrier
    The main ship particulars of 205,000-210,000 dwt large capesize bulk carriers are normally approximately as follows: the overall ship length is 299.9 m, breadth 50 m and scantling draught 17.9-18.4 m. Recent development steps have made it possible to offer solutions which will enable significantly lower transportation costs for large capesize bulk carriers as outlined in the following. One of the goals in the marine industry today is to reduce the impact of CO2 emissions from ships and, therefore, to reduce the fuel consumption for the propulsion of ships to the widest possible extent at any load.
    PDF, 958.56 KB
  • Sep 01, 2012

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    ME-GI Dual Fuel MAN B&W Engines
    This paper describes the latest developments in ME-GI dual fuel MAN B&W two-stroke engines and associated fuel supply systems. The discussion and interest in lowering CO2, NOx, SOx and particulate emissions have increased operators’ and shipowners’ interest in investigating future fuel alternatives.
    PDF, 1.50 MB
  • Jun 16, 2014

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    MAN Alpha CP Propeller – Product Information
    The brochure gives a description of the basic design principles of the Alpha Controllable Pitch (CP) propeller equipment. It contains dimensional sketches, thereby making it possible to work out shaft line and engine room arrangement drawings.
    PDF, 2.03 MB
  • Sep 01, 2012

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    QUANTUM 9000
    The need for seaborne transportation will increase significantly in the years to come. At the same time, the fuel oil price is increasing, stricter emission requirements are coming into force, and the public is becoming more concerned about the environmental footprint of shipping.
    PDF, 2.40 MB
  • Sep 01, 2012

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    Waste Heat Recovery System
    The increasing interest in emission reduction, ship operating costs reduction and the newly adapted IMO EEDI rules calls for measures that ensure optimal utilisation of the fuel used for main engines on board ships. Main engine exhaust gas energy is by far the most attractive among the waste heat sources of a ship because of the heat flow and temperature. It is possible to generate an electrical output of up to 11% of the main engine power by utilising this exhaust gas energy in a waste heat recovery system comprising both steam and power turbines, and combined with utilising scavenge air energy for exhaust boiler feed-water heating.
    PDF, 2.02 MB
  • Jan 18, 2012

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    Reducing Engine Room Overhauling Height
    In the late 1970s, MAN Diesel & Turbo in Copenhagen conducted an investigation into the building-in heights of engine room cranes, and found that, at that time, all engine room cranes on the market required far too much headroom. We therefore decided to develop a particularly low-headroom crane, for which we were granted patents in many countries. The further development of this crane led to the ‘MAN B&W double-jib crane’.
    PDF, 886.02 KB
  • Nov 13, 2007

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    LNG Carriers with ME-GI Engine and High Pressure Gas Supply System
    This paper describes the innovative design and installation features of the fuel gas supply system for an LNG carrier, comprising multistage low temperature boiloff fuel gas compressor with driver and auxiliary systems, highpressure piping system and safety features, controls and instrumentation. The paper also extensively describes the operational control system required to provide full engine availability over the entire transport cycle. Written in coorporation with Burchard Compression
    PDF, 1.43 MB
  • Oct 02, 2007

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    Propulsion Trends in Tankers
    The purpose of this paper – dealing with tanker sizes above 5,000 dwt, and based on an analysis of tankers built/ordered over the last eight years – is to illustrate the latest ship particulars used for modern tankers, and to determine their impact on the propulsion power demand and main engine choice, using the latest MAN B&W two-stroke engine programme as the basis.
    PDF, 883.53 KB
  • Jan 18, 2012

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    Low Container Ship Speed Facilitated by Versatile ME/ME-C Engines
    Recently, fuel oil prices have risen to unprecedented levels, bringing fuel oil consumption of diesel engines more into focus than for a long time. At the same time, exhaust gas emissions in general and CO2 emission in particular are top priorities. One way of reducing fuel consumption as well as CO2 emission is to reduce the ship speed. Fig. 1 shows the relation between power and speed for a typical modern large post panamax container vessel.
    PDF, 596.00 KB
  • Feb 19, 2009

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    Guidelines for Fuels and Lubes Purchasing
    MAN Diesel & Turbo’s engines are designed to operate in accordance with the unifuel principle. This paper gives guidelines for such issues as fuels and lubes purchasing, operation on low-sulphur fuel, and lube oil blending on board.
    PDF, 483.03 KB
  • Aug 19, 2008

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    Exhaust Gas Emission Control Today and Tomorrow
    MAN Diesel & Turbo designs and develops two-stroke engines that comply with the demands and regulations made to the maritime industry, and cooperates with authorities, governments and international organisations on the development of new regulations to fulfil the goal of reducing exhaust gas emissions by realistic methods.The aim is to arrive at methods that are applicable and practical to ship operators, and which will maintain a high level of safety and reliability of the engines.
    PDF, 1.65 MB
  • Sep 12, 2014

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    Improved Efficiency and Reduced CO2
    One of the future goals in the marine industry is to reduce the impact of CO2 emissions from ships in order to meet the coming stricter International Maritime Organisation (IMO) greenhouse gas emission requirements.
    PDF, 378.72 KB
  • Oct 04, 2007

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    MAN B&W Low Speed Large Bore Engines
    With the new S50ME&B, which will be designated Mk 9, we have introduced a competitive engine designed for new modern hull designs, based on more efficient propellers with a lower optimum propeller speed. The engine will adopt the design features introduced on the smaller ME&B engines, and will be introduced with a mep of 21 bar at 117 rpm.
    PDF, 659.50 KB

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